1.1.2 Application of pneumatic technology
(1) Application in automobile manufacturing industry
The production lines of modern automobile manufacturing plants, especially the welding production lines of main processes, almost without exception, adopt pneumatic technology. For example, various special function cylinders and corresponding pneumatic control systems are used in the movement of the body in each process, the suction and lowering of the body shell by the vacuum suction cup, the clamping and positioning at the designated station, the rapid approach of the welding head of the spot welding machine, and the variable pressure control spot welding after the deceleration soft landing. The accuracy of high-frequency spot welding and force control and the high automation of the whole process can be called one of the most representative pneumatic technology applications. In addition, the high-speed cylinder used in the handling device (the maximum speed is up to 3m/s) and the proportional control technology of the composite control valve represent the new development of today’s pneumatic technology.
2) Application in the production process of general machinery industry
For example, in metal cutting, general machine tools can adopt pneumatic chuck, pneumatic vice and fixture, which is fast and labor-saving; High efficiency special machine tools can be equipped with various forms of Pneumatic Manipulators to realize automatic workpiece loading, positioning, clamping, cleaning and other actions. In the processing of small parts, the feeding movement of lathes, drilling machines and milling machines can also be driven by air cylinders or gas-liquid cylinders; On CNC machine tools, pneumatic transmission manipulator can be used to realize automatic tool replacement or speed change of main drive, indexing and positioning of turntable, etc. Therefore, pneumatic technology can play a good role in the processing of large quantities of small parts.
There are many occasions to use air jet. For example: sand blasting, painting, selected rice grains, grain handling, beer, beverages, powder, toxic materials, cement and other pneumatic transportation.
The vacuum system (or negative pressure system) can be used to complete the adsorption, fixation, clamping, picking, handling and so on. For example, the stacked plates cannot be directly grabbed by the manipulator, but can only be absorbed by the vacuum suction cup. However, the positioning accuracy cannot be guaranteed only by using vacuum sucker, so the manipulator and vacuum sucker are used together.
Vacuum components and their systems are also used in various production lines and equipment, such as TV sets, refrigerators, cartons, glass, printing and other production lines. The automatic twister used in textile also uses air jet vacuum generator.
(3) Application in metallurgical machinery
On steel rolling and non-ferrous metal equipment, pneumatic devices are used to complete various auxiliary actions. Generally, an automatic steel rolling line requires more than 200 sets of air valves and a corresponding number of cylinders, which is convenient for remote automatic control.
(4) Application in electronics and semiconductor manufacturing industry
On the assembly line of household appliances such as color TV sets and refrigerators, and on the assembly line of various electronic products such as semiconductor chips and printed circuits, you can not only see various cylinders and air claws of different sizes and shapes, but also see many smart vacuum suction cups gently suck up picture tubes, cartons and other items that are difficult to grasp by ordinary air claws and transport them to the designated position. The chip handling system, which has strict acceleration limits, uses a sinusoidal cylinder with smooth acceleration. This kind of cylinder has a special acceleration and deceleration mechanism, which can smoothly send the water cup filled with water from point a to point B, and ensure that the water does not overflow.
Non contact handling is mainly used for the handling of semiconductor chips, CDs and other objects to ensure the cleanliness of the objects after decontamination. An NCT series pneumatic actuator is used for non-contact handling. Clean compressed air is sprayed from the annular nozzle on the bottom of the element body along the surface of the element body, thereby generating negative pressure under the element and adsorbing objects. The ejected air flows outward along the periphery of the element body through the gap between the element body and the object. Once the object approaches, the ejected air layer prevents contact with the object under the action of rebound force, so it remains in a non-contact suspension state. Unlike vacuum suction cups, CT elements do not rely on sucking air to hold objects. On the contrary, they are devices that hold objects by ejecting air. However, in order to move horizontally freely, it is necessary to set a guide device that contacts the side of the object, and contact with the side of the object is unavoidable.
(5) Application in transportation tools
Pneumatic technology is widely used in trains, subways, cars, planes and other means of transportation. For example, the door opening and closing of subway and automobile, the braking system of automobile, the grease spraying lubrication system between wheel and rail of high-speed train, the pantograph pneumatic control system of electric locomotive, the active suspension system of high-speed train, the curve inclination device of cable car, the support rod of car rear cover, the helicopter whose propeller is driven by the top air nozzle, etc.
(6) Application in mining machinery
Pneumatic motors are widely used in mining machinery. The pneumatic motor is suitable for occasions that require stepless speed change, frequent change of rotation direction, frequent startup, explosion-proof and load startup. In places where the air is humid, high temperature and inconvenient for direct operation (such as small rock loader, air tipper, etc.), it is suitable to use the pneumatic motor. Therefore, there is a great demand for pneumatic motors in mines and underground operations.
(7) Application in agriculture and animal husbandry
The pneumatic radish harvester can pull radishes, classify, count and bind radishes. In greenhouses where vegetables are planted, pneumatic technology is used to drive fans, spray water, spray pesticides, etc. Pneumatic nozzle and photoelectric sensor are used to select rice grains, remove husks and defective rice grains. And milking with pneumatic robots.
(8) Application in packaging industry
Pneumatic technology is widely used in many industries, such as chemical fertilizer, chemical industry, grain, food, medicine, etc., to realize the automatic metering and packaging of powdered, granular and massive materials, used in many processes such as automatic cigarette and automatic packaging in the tobacco industry, and used for the automatic metering and filling of viscous liquids (such as paint, cosmetics, toothpaste, etc.) and toxic gases. In various assembly work, pneumatic components can be used to form an automatic assembly line or assembly line to complete assembly, packaging, sealing and other work. Such as automatic quantitative liquid filling machine. In the production departments of various consumer and daily necessities, pneumatic devices and robots are used to meet the requirements of mass, high-speed, pollution-free manufacturing and packaging, so that they can be quickly put on the market.
9) Application in medium pipeline transportation industry
Pneumatic control is used in most automatic processes of pipeline transmission of media. For example, petroleum processing, gas processing, chemical industry, etc.
(10) Application in robot
For example, assembly robots, painting robots, handling robots, wall climbing robots, welding robots, etc.